"Capitol Cares" an initiative by Capitol Hospital to express care and love for yourself and your family and an opportunity to create awareness regarding importance of health screening and healthy lifestyle.
What is Radiation Oncology?
Radiation Oncology is a clinical and scientific discipline devoted to management of patients with cancer and other disease by ionizing radiation, alone or combined with other modalities.
What is Radiation Therapy?
Radiation Therapy is the treatment using high energy x-rays or electrons or short distance gamma rays to control/cure the cancer.
What is the purpose of Radiation Therapy?
Radiation Therapy is an effective treatment for various types of cancers in almost any part of the body. Its two main purposes are:
- To cure cancer
- To relieve symptoms associated with cancer
For many patients, radiation is the only treatment required. However, radiation therapy may also be given in combination with chemotherapy and/or surgery to shrink a tumour and during or after surgery to kill any cancer cells that may still be present.
How does radiation work?
Radiations with x-rays or electrons produce, free radicals within the nucleus of the cell, which damage the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the cell. The DNA, which has been exposed to radiation damage, is not able to reproduce when it undergoes the cell cycle division. This damage is expressed only when the cell divides. Therefore, the regression of a cancer after radiation may be visible only after a gap (lag time) rather than within first few days of radiation. A few cancers divide very rapidly e.g., lymphomas; here the radiation damage is perceptible at a quicker pace.
Where is Radiation used with surgery?
Radiotherapy is used postoperatively to sterilize the loco-gional area for microscopic residual disease, so that the chances of tumour recurrence are minimized, e.g., Breast Cancer, Soft Tissue Sarcomas, Rectal Cancer, Oesophageal Cancer, Stomach Cancer, Brain Tumours, Kidney Tumours, etc.
When is Radiation combined with Chemotherapy?
Combining radiation with chemotherapy has led to the preservation of organs bearing cancers, especially for cancers of larynx (voice box) and anal canal. The patients can preserve their natural voice and natural passages and get rid of the tumour at the same time.
Concomitant chemotherapy is used to increase the sensitivity of tumour to the radiation and lead to an increase in the probability of tumour control and curability.
In other cancers e.g., carcinoma breast and lymphomas, radiation after chemotherapy consolidates the tumour control and reduces the chance of recurrence.
Why do you get side effects with radiation?
Radiation affects the dividing cells. There are certain body tissues which are regenerated at a fixed interval in every human being e.g., skin, hair, mucosa (inner covering of mouth, stomach, small intestine) and white blood cells. The normal tissues that are being covered within the treated area also undergo radiation damage at the time of treatment. During treatment these surfaces become raw, the white blood cells may become low and put you at the risk for developing infections leading to discomfort and/or pain over the affected areas. The radiation oncologist looking after you knows the dose and time period of normal tissue injury and also its recovery. He/She sees you during the time of radiation and gives you medication to overcome these side effects. These side effects are temporary and normally subside within a few days.
Please do see/talk to your doctor once a week to document any normal tissue changes that occur during your treatment. Please do not apply any creams or take any medicines to overcome these side effects by yourself.
What are the benefits of Bariatric (Weight Loss) Surgery?
The major benefits of Bariatric Surgery are as following:
- Attain significant and sustained weight loss
- Weight loss starts soon after surgery and continues for two years
- You may lose upto 80% of excess weight and maintain it
- Increased life span and improved quality of life, body image and self-esteem
- Improvement in weight related diseases e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure, breathing problems, sleep apnoea, joint pain, reflux disease, etc.
- Minimally invasive surgery leaves no/minimal scars
What are the routine tests before bariatric surgery?
Basic tests are done prior to surgery: A Complete Blood Count, Blood Chemistry, A Chest X-Ray and An Electrocardiogram, Ultrasound to look for Gallstones,Pulmonary Function Testing, Echocardiogram, Sleep Studies, GI Evaluation, Cardiology Evaluation, or Psychiatric Evaluation, may be requested if required.
Is there a lot of pain post bariatric surgery?
Every attempt is made to control pain after surgery to make it possible for you to move quickly and become active. Often several drugs are used together to help manage your post-surgery pain.
How long do I have to stay in the hospital in case of bariatric surgery?
As long as it takes to be self-sufficient, although it can vary, the hospital stay can be 1-2 days for a laparoscopic band and 3-5 days for a laparoscopic gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy.
How soon will I be able to walk post bariatric surgery?
Patients are asked to walk or stand at the bedside on the night of surgery, take several walks the next day and there-after.
What is arthritis?
Arthritis is a condition caused by breakdown of cartilage. Cartilage is a protein substance that normally serves as a cushion between bones of a joint.
Why get your knees replaced?
The simplest answer to this would be WHY LIVE WITH PAIN? Knee replacement is highly successful procedure with excellent results giving the patient a pain-free improved quality of life.
Signs that indicate Knee Replacement:
- You have knee pain that keeps you awake, or awakens you, at night.
- You have knee pain which limits activities necessary to go about your daily routine (such as getting up from a chair or climbing stairs).
- You have tried other conservative treatments for a reasonable period of time, you still have persistent knee pain.
You and your doctor must consider many other factors prior to surgery, including age, overall health, and bone density. But the list (mentioned above) gives you an idea when you should begin to consider a replacement.
What is the ideal age for knee replacement?
Most patients are elderly, above 60 years of age, but since the main indication for surgery is PAIN, younger patients may also need a replacement. Age, both young and very old, is never a contraindication for surgery.
How long does the patient have to stay in hospital in case of knee replacement surgery?
1-2 days before surgery to 5-7 days after surgery. This is to provide pain relief, anticoagulant prophylaxis and patient ambulation.
When and how can you walk after surgery?
The patient is made to walk 24-48 hours after surgery. Crutches or walker are used to aid ambulation for 3-4 weeks, then a cane for another 3-4 weeks. So you can walk without any support after one and half month to two months.
Is knee replacement painful?
Post operative pain is controlled to tolerable levels by excellent multi-modal anaesthesia, epidural block and patient controlled analgesia. Initial injectable painkillers can be replaced by oral tablets within 2-3 days.